Criminal Investigations Department
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Criminal Investigation Department is charged with the duty to investigate and detect all serious crimes in Zimbabwe as mandated by Section 219 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe. Domiciled at corner Josiah Chinamano and 9th Street, CID Headquarters is headed by a Commissioner whose office designation is Director CID. The Department has several specialized sections and units which deal with specific crimes as well as technical expertise required in investigation on crimes. Both operational and Technical sections and their functions are outlined below.
NATIONAL CENTRAL BUREAU (NCB) HARARE
The Criminal Investigation Department has Interpol NCB as one of its sections. The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO) popularly referred to as Interpol is an international police organization that deals with transnational crime. Interpol National Central Bureau (NCB) Harare is the Zimbabwe Republic Police’s interface with INTERPOL 194 members, Southern Africa Regional Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization (SARPCCO), Police organizations and other Law Enforcement Agencies whose mandate is to fight transnational crime.
ROLES OF NCB
- Exchange information with other NCBs on criminal matters.
- Development of national databases for stolen motor vehicles, wanted persons, missing persons, stolen works of art and stolen/lost travel documents.
- Facilitation of the extradition of fugitives for justice between countries and repatriation of recovered stolen exhibits.
- Asset recovery programs for forging Industrial/economic development.
- Develop expertise on the requirements of international police co-operation on illicit firearms, Financial High Tech Crimes and international Drug related & corruption crimes.
- Co-ordination of SARPCCO meetings, seminars, operations and conferences.
- Carryout criminal background checks on prospective investors.
Stolen Motor Vehicles
Provides extensive identification details on approximately 4.7 million vehicles reported stolen around the world by member states.
The database is used for the record of internationally wanted persons on serious crimes excluding those of a political nature or religion.
Stolen and Lost Travel Documents Database [SLTD]
This database enables INTERPOL NBCs and other law enforcement entities to ascertain the validity of a questionable travel document in REAL time/seconds.
Fingerprints Database [AFIS]
INTERPOL manages an Automated Fingerprint Identification System which has thousands sets of fingerprints and crime scene marks. They can be used to quickly and efficiently confirm or disprove a person’s identity, for example checking a suspect at a border crossing point.
Stolen Works of Arts
Allows member countries to research records on nearly 33 000 pieces of artwork and cultural heritage reported stolen all over the world.
Small Arms and Light Weapons [SALW]
This database enables INTERPOL NBCs and other law enforcement entities to input , trace check, search origin and manufacturer of a questionable firearm in REAL time/seconds.
FINANCIAL AND HIGH-TECH CRIME
INTERPOL provides information on counterfeiting and cyber-crime to member countries and industries affected by these crimes.
Informing the public on the use of the INTERPOL RED, BLUE, YELLOW, BLACK, ORANGE, GREEN and PURPLE United Nations notices in combating transnational crimes.
INTERPOL TURN BACK CRIME PROGRAMME
INTERPOL introduced the TURN BACK Crime programme which is a global campaign to raise awareness on the dangers of organized crime. The programme discourages members of the public from buying counterfeit and pirated products which can fuel underground criminal activities which put individuals at risk and also affects the local economy.
Specialized section in the Criminal Investigation Department responsible for investigation of all serious cases of Theft from car, Theft of car parts and Unlawful entry and theft cases.
VEHICLE THEFT SQUAD (VTS)
Vehicle Theft Squad is a specialized Section in the Zimbabwe Republic Police under Criminal Investigation Department, which is mandated to investigate: -
Theft of motor vehicles
Robbery of motor vehicles
Clearance of motor vehicles for registration, on change of ownership, on new registration for both foreign imports and exports in accordance with the SARPCO regulations and for the change of vehicle particulars.
CID Homicide Harare is a specialized section of the Zimbabwe Republic Police under the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) primarily concerned with the efficient and effective management of serious crimes such as Armed Robbery, Murder, Kidnapping and Theft or loss of Firearms, ammunition and other related material.
DRUGS AND NARCOTICS
CID Drugs and Narcotics is a specialized section in the Criminal Investigations Department responsible for investigating all cases of drug abuse, trafficking and illicit dealing in medicines allied substances.
It is common cause that drug abuse impacts negatively on individuals, families and on the entire economy. The creation of a peaceful and secure environment is but a major role of any policing service and needs not be emphasized.
3. POLICE ANTI CORRUPTION UNIT (PACU)
The Section’s mandate is to suppress, investigate and detect corruption and all other economic crimes committed within or against parastatals, statutory bodies and the private sector. It envisages to promote the four pillars of good corporate governance.
4. COMMERCIAL CRIMES DIVISION (CCD)
The Commercial Crimes Division is a specialist Section responsible for the suppression, detection and investigation of serious and complex economic crimes in Zimbabwe. The Commercial Crimes Division manages and handles all general cases of fraud. In addition, it has two specialized Units, namely the Cybercrime and Asset Forfeiture Units which focuses mainly on combating cybercrime and money laundering respectively.
• The economic crimes include;
• Tax Evasion.
• Money Laundering.
ASSET FORFEITURE UNIT
The Asset Forfeiture Unit endeavors to remove all economic benefits accruing to criminals through combating money laundering as well as pursuing forfeiture and recovery of assets emanating from predicate offences such as fraud, dealing in precious stones, Smuggling, Tax evasion and Corruption. Money laundering if left unchecked disturbs the well-functioning of the economy through tainting the economy with proceeds of crime. In this regard, the thrust of the Unit is to conduct parallel financial investigations aimed at removing ill-gotten wealth from the hands of criminals.
5. CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE UNIT, RECORDS AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
CRIMINAL RECORDS OFFICE
The Criminal Records Office is the national data bank of all criminal records and wanted persons in Zimbabwe. It also maintains security company files, Mining company files, Interpol files and Political Profile files for the whole country.
As a national reservoir for all the above, the section has a mandate to vet fingerprints of arrested suspects from all police stations and sections in Zimbabwe, as well as from police establishments from Interpol member states of Zimbabweans or people believed to have resided in Zimbabwe.
The section also vets non-criminal fingerprints for members of the public and various Government departments and non-governmental organisations in Zimbabwe, for prospective employees, appointees, students, citizenships, election candidates, renewal of dealer’s licence and firearm licences. In addition, Criminal Records Office processes fingerprints for known deceased criminals.
CENTRAL CRIMINAL BUREAU
The Central Criminal Bureau (CCB) is the national reservoir of certified criminal fingerprints. CCB is charged with the responsibility of maintaining a criminal database of certified fingerprints for criminals convicted in Zimbabwe and Zimbabweans convicted abroad. It also maintains a database for wanted persons.
The section has a mandate to vet fingerprints of arrested suspects from all Police stations and sections in Zimbabwe, and as well as from Police establishments from INTERPOL member states for Zimbabweans and people believed to have resided in Zimbabwe.
SCENES OF CRIME
CID Scenes of Crime section is responsible for evidence gathering by scientifically examining crime scenes, gathering fingerprint evidence and linking suspects to crimes that would have been committed. Scenes of Crime is among the ancillary services in the organisation which offers specialist services to Police Stations as an aid to investigations. The section attends to scenes of crime where the examination of fingerprints is required and link the perpetrator to the scene of crime through fingerprints.
NATIONAL FINGERPRINT BUREAU [NFB]
The National Fingerprint Bureau is a section that falls under the Criminal Investigation Department. The fingerprint database is used to verify true identity and also obtain further particulars which can facilitate the tracing of registered individuals, as follows:
National Fingerprints Bureau provides information to the Registrar Generals office on whether or not individuals applying for National Registration were previously issued with identity documents before to avoid double/multiple registration.
National Fingerprints Bureau conducts searches through fingerprints and supplies information to police stations, sections and Interpol in relation to particulars of Unidentified dead bodies, and also facilitates tracing of wanted persons by providing further particulars. In addition, the conclusive particulars enable Interpol to apply for Red notices for wanted persons and stations or sections to card or update their Criminal databases
The National Fingerprints Bureau provides institutions like Banks insurance referred by different government and non-governmental organizations to obtain particulars for various purposes including fraud, preventing before engaging the individuals concerned in various matters.
CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE UNIT
The Criminal Intelligence Unit is a specialized section within the Criminal Investigation Department of the Zimbabwe Republic Police established to enhance intelligence led policing. It is involved in the intelligence analytical process of gathering, analyzing and dissemination of Criminal Intelligence to end users within and outside the organization. The Unit also integrates databases from technical sections such as Scenes of crime, Central Criminal Bureau, Criminal Records Office, National Fingerprint Bureau, forensic Science, forensic Ballistics and Central Firearms Registry. It is within the domain of Criminal Intelligence Unit to generate operational and strategic intelligence reports meant to predict the future crime trends, identify offenders, proffer strategies to prevent and detect crime.
CID Forensic Ballistics is a support section under Criminal Investigations Department and its core business involves:
• Examination of fired cartridge cases and spent bullets recovered from scenes of crime.
• Examination of fire arms recovered from scenes of crime or confiscated from suspects or
• Scene attendance where the use of fire arms and explosives have been involved.
• The attendance of post mortems in order to assist pathologists with the ideas as to;
ü What type of weapon was used to shoot the deceased?
ü Entrance and exit wounds left by the bullet.
ü Information on terminal ballistics, that is, the effect the bullet has on living tissue.
ü Collect all the exhibits recovered from the dead bodies and secure them for further examination in the laboratory.
ü Compile corresponding reports with the pathologist’s finding for judiciary purposes.
ü Compilation of reports and attendance of to give expert advice.
CID Forensic Ballistics as a support section in the organization, assisting in the criminal investigations not only to the Zimbabwe Republic police but also to other sister organizations like the Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Prison and Correctional Services and The National Parks of Zimbabwe.
FORENSIC SCIENCE LABORATORY
The Forensic Science Laboratory is a highly specialized technical unit of the Zimbabwe Republic Police whose function is to aid police investigations through analyzing exhibits and giving expert conclusive evidence on crime scenes. The unit is manned by highly qualified forensic scientists, and has the following sub-sections;
The Section analyses a wide range of biological evidence for example samples of blood, semen, saliva, sweat derived from cases of murder, rape, stock-theft, etc.
The Criminalistics area brings together a pool of scientists dealing with microscopy, tool marks, paints, glass, fibres and hairs analyses etc. The section also examines evidence of hair, fibres, gunshot residue, bullets, cartridges and metals.
This section analyses minute to complex toxicological evidence (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and other poisons), arson accelerants, explosives and explosive ordinances, blood alcohol, controlled drugs etc.
Document Examination Section
The Document Examination Section uses application of advanced analytical techniques in the analysis of hand-writing, signatures, indented impressions, alterations, erasures, obliterations, type writer, printed documents etc.
THE CYBER CRIME UNIT
The Cybercrime Unit deals with crimes resulting from the use of the information communication technology systems to commit or conceal criminal acts. Although, technology has brought numerous benefits to the society, it is the threat of cybercrime which is now rearing its ugly head and the threat is on the upward trend. The speed and anonymity which digital technologies accord to society is strategically positioning criminals to victimize unsuspecting business organizations and the general public. In this vein, the Unit fosters to combat debit/credit card fraud, unlawful access to a computer or computer network and hacking.
6. MINERALS, FLORA AND FAUNA UNIT (MFFU)
Minerals Flora and Fauna Unit, a Section within the Zimbabwe Republic Police is mandated to monitoring and curbing illegal activities particularly that involves precious resources such as minerals, Parks and Wildlife resources and public utilities and infrastructure.